GOVERNMENT OPIUM & ALKALOID FACTORIES
The first recorded instance of cultivation of poppy in India in the 15th Century mentions Cambay and Malwa as the places where it was grown. During the days of the Mughal Empire, poppy was extensively grown and it became an important article of trade with China and other Eastern countries. During the later part of the 16th Century, opium was made a State monopoly. However, during the twilight years of the Mughal Empire, the State lost its hold on the monopoly, and control over the production and sale of opium was appropriated by a ring of merchants in Patna. In 1757, the monopoly of the cultivation of poppy passed into the hands of the East India Company who had by that time assumed the responsibility for the collection of revenue in Bengal and Bihar. In 1773, the then Governor General, Lord Warren Hastings brought the entire opium trade under control of the Government. Although some changes have taken place over the year in the methods of control of production, distribution, sale and possession of opium, the monopoly remained solely in the hands of the Government. Under the East India Company and afterwards under the British rule, unrestricted cultivation of the poppy and the production of opium were prohibited. The present structure of licit poppy cultivation and production of opium in India under a regular system of control thus dates back to the beginning of the nineteenth century.
Processing of opium in India began with the setting up of the opium factory in 1820 in Ghazipur (U.P.), a town of Eastern U.P. located on the banks of the River Ganga. Later an alkaloid plant was set up a Ghazipur in 1943 during the period of World War II. The Opium and Alkaloid Plants of Ghazipur are spread over an area of about 43 acres.
The second plant for processing opium and manufacture of alkaloids located in Neemuch district of M.P., which is approximately 5 kms. from the eastern border of Rajasthan. It also comprises two separate units namely, the Opium Factory and Alkaloid Works. The Neemuch Opium Factory has been in operation since 1st April, 1935. Initially, there was another Opium Factory at Mandsaur but the same was closed down in the year 1969. The Alkaloid works was inaugurated on 6th October, 1976. The campus has an area of 57,000 sq. mtrs.
The Alkaloid Works at Ghazipur and Neemuch processes raw opium for manufacture of alkaloid/ drugs, namely narcotine, thebaine, papaverine and codeine phosphate. Morphine salts and Codeine Phosphate are the main products supplied to Indian Pharmaceutical Industries. The Alkaloid Works also has its own process control and quality control laboratories to ensure regular monitoring of process samples and stringent quality control. The organization also has a full-fledged Research and Development wing.
The following products are manufactured at the Government Opium and Alkaloid Works undertakings
To obtain further information on these products, please contact
at the following address
The addresses and phone numbers of their offices and factories are: